Contributed by Belinda Dettmann
The dots on the graph represent DNA haplotypes from men with the Stewart surname or Stewart affiliations, who have been tested as R1b and show the Ancient Stewart DNA signature of GATAH4=10, DYS406S1=11, DYS565=11. Such testers are believed to be direct-line male descendants of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland.
The diagram shows the relationships between the various lines within the Ancient Stewart Group, and it suggests that different key mutations from the core group may represent different descendant lines.
NB: Each mutation on its own may not be diagnostic, as similar mutations may occur in other lines at any time. The subgroups are summarised below as a ROUGH GUIDE to possible lines of descent, and all require a test at 67 markers.
The subgroups are:
Red Group. ALEXHS. Zero, one or two mutations, no other relatives.
Alexander, 4th High Steward was the ancestor of the Royal Stewart kings of Scotland, via King Robert II. He was also the ancestor of the Royal House of Stuart in the United Kingdom, via King James I and VI, and of many other lines of Stewart or Stuart nobles in Scotland, England, Ireland and France. Some of these descendant lines are represented among the groups below.
The large red dot labelled ALEXHS consists of a group of identical haplotype results (110059, 179069, 181994), which are believed to be unchanged from the Y-DNA signature of Alexander Stewart (1210-1283), 4th High Steward of Scotland. The other red dots represent three further individuals (132507, 168402, 52758) who appear to descend from ALEXHS, differing by only one or two mutations, but with no other relatives known to date.
Green Group. #8101 and relatives. DYS458=16.
The largest subgroup, it probably represents several different lines, all emanating from a common ancestor (identity unknown) who was a descendant of Alexander, 4th High Steward.
Royal Blue Group. CHASII.
This line includes descendants from the English Royal Stuarts, and from their ancestral Scottish line back through the Lennox Stuarts. All men of this ancestry descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyle or Bonkill, second son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, though the DNA split must have occurred lower down the line than Sir John himself. A small subgroup of the Ancient Stewarts, it contains the English descendants of Henry Darnley, heir to the Earl of Lennox, who married Mary Queen of Scots and whose son James I and VI inherited the English crown after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. It also includes descendants of an earlier line that has split off from Sir John of Bonkyle, somewhere between him and Henry Darnley.
Pale Red Group. #148823 and relatives.
Lilac Group. #16895 and relatives.
Grey-green Group. #148478 and relatives.
Grey-blue Group. #40333 and relatives.
Teal Blue Group. #164047 and relatives.
CDYb=38. This line includes the Stewarts of Ardsheal, descendants of the Stewarts of Appin, and ultimately descended from Sir John of Bonkyle via his son Sir James Stewart of Peirston, Athole, Buchan and Traquair.
Orange Group. #116794 and relatives.
Dark Green Group. #53238 and relatives.
Grey Group. #48694 and relatives.